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Submission to the National

Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention from

Address by Nicholas Procter,

Associate Professor, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA


Special thanks goes

to Maritza Manojlovic, Michele Nardelli and Rosemary Thompson who skilfully

helped me to elaborate the arguments of the paper. To the Middle Eastern

new arrivals that warmly welcomed me into their lives, ready to reveal

their deepest concerns in the belief that they would be taken seriously,

I say thank you. My greatest thanks goes to Mohammed Amirghiasvand for

inspiring me to continue working in this area.

Ladies and gentlemen,

it is so good to see you all here. This is an excellent turnout.

Thank you for all

coming.

Allow me to start

in the customary way. I would like to acknowledge the Kaurna people who

are the traditional owners of the land we are meeting on. Than you for

your invitation.

Ladies and gentlemen,

if you go away with nothing more from my paper today, I want you to remember

two things.

Firstly I will argue

that the cruelty towards people of all ages who seek asylum in this country

is no longer possible to ignore. There is steadily accumulating evidence

from a range of credible sources that the process of detention and post-detention

policies of this Government are providing a retraumatising environment.

I am in agreement

with some of the nation¡¯s finest mental health experts that

until proven otherwise, there is every reason to assume that disabling

mental problems and mental disorders being experienced by people in detention

is a direct outgrowth of the conditions of detention.1

Secondly, I will

demonstrate that there is no greater sense of humanity in life than to

reach out to someone and tell them that you care for them at a time when

there are perilous consequences for their mental health and well being.

Before discussing

what is happening inside and outside our detention centers, lets have

a brief look at what characterises refugees and asylum seekers.

Globally there are

around 20 million refugees. Refugees and asylum seekers are distinguished

from migrants by their lack of choice. Under Australian Law and International

Law (Article 14 of the Universal Declaration of human rights) a person

is entitled to make an application for refugee asylum in another country

when they allege they are escaping persecution. Many arrive as refugees

and as such have to leave their countries of origin to escape persecution,

imprisonment, torture or even death. Families may have been physically

separated, causing much grief. Refugees are often preoccupied by worry

about relatives left behind in the country of origin. Many refugees including

children have no other relatives in their country of destination.

Their psychological

well being of is further compromised by repeated experiences of failure

in this new country as their efforts to gain work and learn English is

thwarted.

Most of these people

- who have often suffered personal and life tragedies that, have also

had to deal with feeling misunderstood, stigmatized and marginalized by

their inability to speak English, by their cultural beliefs or by their

general appearance.

The Middle Eastern

asylum seekers I have been speaking with have fled to escape persecution,

imprisonment, torture or even death. Many have been physically separated

from loved ones, causing much grief, and there is a pervading preoccupation

about family members left behind and the outcomes of their refugee experiences.

It is important to note that upon a determination being made by the Australian

authorities concerning each so-called "illegal" entrant, one

of two consequences necessarily follow. Those who meet the test are granted

a Temporary Protection Visa (TPV). Where the asylum-seeker is found not

to be a refugee they are removed under the Migration Act 1958 (Commonwealth)

as soon as possible. There is no guarantee that the country that they

left, or those countries through which they travelled, will take them

back.

The duration of a

Temporary Protection Visa is only 30 months. At the end of this period

an interview ¡© the so-called 30-month interview - is held

in order to review the status of asylum seekers.

I understand that

four such interviews were held in South Australia during May this year.

And during the first three months of next year I estimate that more than

2000 interviews will need to be held. This will cause enormous strain

for individuals and families who are already feeling the effects of circumstances

here and in their homeland.

What is the government

doing in preparation for this major event in the lives of people who have

had to escape oppression, fear of persecution, torture or even death and

are now being faced with the daunting task of having to convince authorities

that they are still a refugee?

When the TPV holders

are released from a detention centre, after a determination by the Department

of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA) as is

required under the Act, DIMA provides them with information, often without

the assistance of an interpreter, as to how to obtain a Medicare card,

how to find treatment for medical problems and an envelope containing

forms they can fill out for acceptance into social services. The view

expressed by officers of the department is that their obligations to TPV

holders stops immediately after a briefing - often rushed, short and confusing

and, on many occasions, held after a long bus ride of several hours duration

following release from a detention centre where the refugee has been held

in virtual isolation, perhaps for years. The refugee is possibly unfamiliar

with Western bureaucracies and the filling out of forms and lacks functional

English. It is reported that DIMIA officials have stated that their responsibility

stops after they have so provided information and limited accommodation

at a rooming house or, as they refer to them, "backpacker accommodation"

2.

Unlike those granted

Permanent Protection Visas (as all refugees were, prior to October 1999),

these refugees cannot access the settlement services provided to other

refugees, such as English classes. They cannot access the mainstream social

welfare system to obtain pensions or Newstart allowances, cannot bring

their families to Australia, and they cannot return to Australia. All

of these entitlements are available to refugees who are processed "offshore"

and who are then authorised to enter Australia.

Let me give you some

real life examples of the sorts of issues I have been talking to people

about.

Here is the true

story of one refugee I have worked closely with.

I am a young Afghani.

I spent 25 years of my life in Afghanistan with my family. Life there

was not easy but I was happy and life was good. But my life changed

when a group called the Taliban came to power in Afghanistan. They destroyed

my life and made me a refugee.

It was not an easy

decision to leave - but I had to leave my country. I escaped, faced

a lot of hardship and difficult situations and on September 25 2000

I got to Port Headland in Australia ¡© happy and relieved

that it was all over and I was hopeful.

I spent the first

6 months of my life in Australia in Port Headland Detention Centre.

The condition in the camp was not good. For three months me and the

another three people were living in a windowless room - as a matter

of fact as I come to think about it ¡© a cell yes, that is

what it was, a cell. This was meant for just one person. Every 24 hours

we were allowed to go out for a walk or a smoke for 10 minutes.

After three months

I was moved to another block which was much larger and about 800 detainees

were living in that block. I was happy that I could go out and walk

and breathe freely in a much larger fenced area. Most of my time was

spent in food queues. The dining hall was very small and detainees had

to take turn for food. I had to wait for two hours to eat. Breakfast,

lunch and dinner ¡© 6 hours in total in a queue.

Our Government now

argue that people like this young man should return home. Many of you

will be aware of the Federal Government¡¯s offer of cash being

offered to people willing to return to Afghanistan. The Government's offering

each asylum seeker $2,000 to return to his/her homeland. A family is eligible

for up to $10,000. The offer applies only to those Afghans who arrived

in Australia, Christmas Island, or Nauru before May 16 this year and who

are in detention awaiting a decision on their refugee status. They have

28 days, in which to accept the offer.

Yet it is my view

that this sort of pressure is unsettling and divisive for at least four

reasons.

First, there has

been only a relatively short period of peace in Afghanistan. Peace is,

in this sense, still in its infancy. It is difficult for families to return

to an uncertain future in an environment where there is an interim government

and sporadic fighting. This is a conflict that cannot be turned off like

a tap.

Second, there is

nothing to go back to. Many sold all they owned in order to come to Australia.

Third, the thought

of returning home brings on feelings of shame and persecution. There is

a fear that their return will mean betraying people, a sense of ¡°You

left us to go to Australia¡± and the coming to Australia

was in itself done quickly. There will be a very real concern among those

who do decide to return of being told by family that they should not expect

any special treatment. Nor can they expect that everything will be the

same for them.

Fourth, parents fear

the disruption and distress this move will bring on among their children.

For the past 2-3 years post detention children have been helped by all

to adjust and cope with the change of living. In short, people are feeling

that this will be disruptive for children.

People are being

forced to make decisions about whether or not they will return in a highly

pressurised, stressful environment. Medical staff who have worked at the

Woomera Detention Centre report that they have treated people showing

severe signs of depression, anxiety, psychosis and many have been in need

of re-hydration some of which was against the will of the people themselves.

Self-harm ¡© wrist cutting and slashing requiring suturing

has been a weekly occurrence. So too the breaking of glass, attempted

hangings and burnings.

The rates of self-harm

amongst Australia's immigration detainees, including children and young

people up to the age of 20, is appallingly high, according to a report

from the Catholic Commission for Justice, Development and Peace.

The report, called

"Damaging Kids", concludes, "Widespread psychological

and emotional abuse of children and young people is occurring as a result

of being incarcerated in Australia¡¯s Immigration Detention

Centres. The damage to children is profound and may permanently impair

their psychological development and wellbeing as adults."

According to Doctor

Louise Newman, Chair of the Faculty of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,

Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists,

Children currently

held in Detention Centres have been exposed to serious psychological

distress in adults and adult self-harming behaviours, and have experienced

cultural dislocation and community trauma. In these circumstances it

is likely that many will develop Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and

that this may become chronic with effects on development.3

These surveys and

medical reports have been backed up by a coalition of health and welfare

professionals and with highly credible reports from registered psychologists,

teachers and mental health nurses.

And to make matters

worse there is a culture of marginalisation both inside and outside the

Detention Centres. According to one medical officer who has worked there,

there is a blinkered view of Middle Eastern People and this persists among

some camp guards.

This "blinkered

view" as he put it is nothing more than a taken-for-granted assumption

that they (detainees) are all queue jumpers, criminals, militants, here

to establish terrorist cells in Australia.

This is just not

true. In a rebuff to these claims - claims which are also being made by

some of our most senior politicians - that asylum seekers could be terrorists,

the 2001 annual report of the Australian Security Intelligence Organsiation

(ASIO) says of the 3,700 checks it had made to July 2001, only one person

has been stopped for security concerns. It was not clear if this person

came to Australia by boat or by air. The agency says its primary investigations

centre on supporters of terrorists groups who are already Australian citizens,

or permanent residents already approved by the Government 4.

In describing the

mental health implications of detaining asylum seekers, Zachary Steel

and Derrick Silove identify factors such as prior experiences of torture

and other forms of persecution in the country of origin, the stress created

by the length and conditions of detention, and the feelings and the anxiety

and desperation in those whose refugee claims are rejected.

What is of particular

concern to me, as a mental health professional, is that these are the

sorts of conditions in which people seeking asylum are expected to tell

their story over and over again, in order to convince immigration officials

that they are telling the truth.

When people escape

to another country their application for asylum is considered in light

of the information they can supply and any facts known about the country.

Clearly, asylum seekers do suffer from denial of credibility and claims

are dismissed on grounds of minor discrepancies. Mental distress and emotional

disorders can and will affect the quality of information people remember.

Think for a moment about your own experience of being anxious and the

way in which there might be more attention given over to threat more than

anything else.

Where the experience

is highly traumatic for example, a situation involving serious injury

to the person the situation is even more complex. There may be important

differences between traumatic and non-traumatic memories. For example,

initial recall of traumatic events by people with post-traumatic stress

disorder typically does not involve normal narrative memory. In other

words, the story of what happened may be fragmented and therefore appearing

inconsistent.

The assumption made

by government officials is that inconsistency of recall means that people

are assumed to be telling lies.

If discrepancies

in recall of events continue to be used as a criterion for deciding if

someone is telling the truth, then asylum seekers who have post-traumatic

stress at the time of their interviews are systematically more likely

to be rejected the longer their application takes.5

The task ahead is

to change the fundamental process of doing this kind of investigation

with people who are living under cruel conditions.

Why is it that consistency

is valued so highly when common sense, as well as research, tells us it

is difficult to tell a story exactly the same way twice?6

It is no wonder then

that given this sort of background we should be asked by people released

from detention centres such questions as, Do you really trust us? Do

you believe what we are telling you? What do you think about us? Do you

want us here in Australia? Do you really like us? The whole experience

of being detained in a camp in the middle of the desert had left them

without reference points in the community. Their experience cannot help

but undermine that all people need to feel safe, need to have a relationship

of trust before they can reveal who they are and before they can allow

others to know them.

I have organised

the remainder of this paper according to this overall theme and will endeavour

to address issues relating to it using the following story.

Jamal 7

is a 25-year-old single Afghani man who arrived in Australia via Pakistan

9 months ago. He was in Port Headland Detention Centre for 9 months and

was released 4 months ago. Back in his home country he was a carpenter

and worked in his family-run business. He had a big family (4 brothers

and 3 sisters) of which he is the oldest. He wanted to marry his cousin.

However, the government changed bringing a new regime to power. When he

refused to join them he was arrested and put into prison for 3 years.

When he came to Adelaide

he was given accommodation in a Backpacker Hostel and was told he had

7 days to find his own accommodation. He receives $182.45 per week assistance

from the Government and from this he must pay for everything. He has a

temporary permit visa and is only allowed to stay in Australia for 3 years.

Until Jamal is able to prove his refugee status, he cannot remain permanently

in Australia, nor can he sponsor his fiance to join him. Jamal is not

sure that his cousin¡¯s parents will let her remain unmarried

for that long. This is something he thinks about constantly and agonizes

about day and night.

At the time I met

Jamal immigration officials told Jamal that in order to get his medicare

card he must apply for permanent residency in Australia. This has now

changed. At the present moment you can apply for medicare prior to applying

for permanent residence. As previously stated, his English is very limited

and he has no access to free English classes for refugees. He receives

letters from the immigration department and Centerlink everyday and doesn't

know what to do with them. He is beginning to think that he is under surveillance

from these two groups.

He is living in rented

accommodation in the western suburbs of Adelaide. As he speaks little

English people do not understand him and turn away. Whenever he goes to

Centerlink about a job they talk about "job links", "job

matching', "job networks" and intensive assistance. He finds

all this is very confusing. Back in his homeland if you need a job you

go to a workshop and show what you can do with your hands. But he finds

things here to be very complicated. Sometime ago he attended a job interview

and was told that he was not suited to the job without a driver's license

and proper English. This is something he fears will keep happening.

A few days later

he was found by the police wandering in the street at 3.30am, and was

taken to hospital casualty department. During an interview with an interpreter

he told of feeling isolated, alone without energy and empty inside. He

is constantly talking about wanting to be a part of the ¡°mainstream¡±

and starting a new life here. He feels that he has so much to do with

so little time. By mainstreamhe is thinking about the place where people

go to socialize, make friendships and trust others. He says he wants to

feel at home here. He feels that he wants to trust others, but through

the passage of time, is having increasing difficulty in doing so. At the

same time he is thinking about his family and homeland. Yesterday he received

a letter from his mother. Below is a segment of the letter:

It is about nine

months since you have gone. I know from the United Nations that you are

in Australia. Do parents have no rights? You saved yourself and not us!

The soldiers have

captured three of your brothers and a cousin. They force us to go to war

and kill our brothers. They are in prison. It is one of those prisons

without any roof over their heads. They are exposed to the elements wind,

snow and rain. I have been there a few times to try and release them.

The prison guards are asking for 15,000 Lakh per person (approximately

A$6,000) to release them from prison. The prison guards are beating them

three times per day with metal rods. My son, my son, I need your help.

For the sake of God help me (pleading) and send some money so that I can

free your brother. Because of the drought in Afghanistan there has been

no harvest. We have no money. How nice it would be if you can take me

to where you live. What a wonderful life it would be. Life is so bitter

here. The schools are closed. Children are not allowed to go to school.

They must stay at home.

Jamal says he feels

very guilty that he has not found a job and that he is not sending money

to his family. He feels that he has let them down. It is not possible

to call them by telephone and let them know that things are not easy here.

He wants to reassure his fiance that he will come back for her. He feels

that he has failed.

But he cannot leave

Australia and 3 years is a long time to wait. To complicate matters he

is quite upset about not being able to find a job in Australia and keeps

repeating over-and-over again that he has failed his family after all

they have done for him. During the interview he is tearful, makes limited

eye contact and appears to be having trouble keeping his concentration.

He looks very depressed and thinks his life is no longer worth living.

"No life is worth all this trouble" he says 8.

People like Jamal,

and others, challenge and inspire us with their stories. We can learn

from them how important it is to create a special connection with people.

There is no greater sense of humanity in life than to reach out to someone

and tell them that you care for them at a time when their mental health

and well-being is being eroded. It is by listening to people honestly

and without prejudice that we as health workers learn what practical things

we can do to make a difference.

From my perspective

there is a lot going on at a community level to help people like Jamal.

Some government, but mainly non-government and volunteer organisations,

are working very hard to provide services, promote inclusion and marshal

as much practical and political assistance as possible in pre and post-detention

settings. To my mind there are many layers of activity ¡© both

political and practical taking place.

At the heart of what

people are trying to do is create a humanizing experience for people enduring

a dehumanizing one.

And making this point

I am careful to mention that asylum seekers are not a homogenous group.

Yet for stories to

be told there needs to be a display of trust and acceptance that needs

to be genuine and sustained.

It is against this

background that we return to the story of Jamal. What was particularly

crucial was the need for him to find somebody who he could trust. That

is, a counsellor or community worker he can go to whenever practical help,

support and/or advice are needed. Without this trust, there can be a series

of disappointments surrounding the behavior and actions of others. It

is important to prevent this disappointment turning into disillusionment

and, ultimately abandonment of others in health and helping relationships.

Jamal decided to

try and trust others. He decided to do this by talking with a counsellor

on a regular basis. He took the view that while talking about his problems

and sharing them with someone else was ¡°risky¡±,

to not do this could make his situation worse. After a couple of sessions

with the counselor, Jamal began to open-up to describing his feelings.

To help bring this process about during the sessions, the counsellor began

by asking Jamal some general questions about his background, where he

came from and what aspects of his culture were most important to him and,

ultimately, what is it that troubles him in life at the moment.

During these interactions

the counsellor showed genuine interest in the answers that were given,

without judging Jamal¡¯s decision or methods of coming to Australia.

Over time Jamal began to come around to the idea that what he was feeling

is a natural consequence of having to largely self-manage his frustration

and loneliness in Australia. The counsellor introduced the idea that what

he was feeling was not unique, and reassured him that there was nothing

seriously wrong with him. Upon hearing this, Jamal said he was quite relieved.

The counsellor then

introduced the idea that what he was going through was a life experience

that was very foreign to him. The way this operated was much the same

way that life in this new country was foreign to him. The counsellor did

this by introducing the following notion:

'Right now you

are something of a pioneer. What is now the saddest part of your life

will shape some of the most important part of your life in the future.

It is something that you may one day talk about with others more freely,

perhaps even with pride.'

The counseling sessions

are a means through which to introduce the notion of structure and hope

into Jamal's life. This structure can be in the form of making plans with

regard to friendships, learning English, and finding a part-time employment.

Voluntary work -if it is obtainable - is seen as a useful strategy to

resolve boredom as well as a means to help with the development of self-trust,

as it is English language skills. Volunteer work in a supportive environment

is also seen as a means to help relieve some of his loneliness and distress.

This idea is built

around the notion of Jamal helping other people here at a time when he

is feeling powerless to help his mother and brothers in Afghanistan.

This form of helping

others is a language that he can understand - it is a practical means

of being able to do something with his time and develop important social

skills with others, increase his social network.

What this also does

is offer him a practical means of doing something to help impact upon

his circumstances.

Jamal decides to

write a letter to his family back in Afghanistan. In his letter he talks

about his life since he left home, his journey to Australia, life in the

camp and life in Adelaide. He does this in great detail. He explains in

as much detail as he can that his life here in Australia is not easy here

and money is short. Jobs are not easy to get. In other words, he wants

to send a message to his family of what life is really like in Australia.

He talks about his love for his family, how much he is missing them and

how grateful he is for the opportunity to start a new life. He talks about

how sorry he is for the situation of his brother and cousin. He stresses

that he has not forgotten them and will do whatever he can, as quickly

as he can, to help them.

The way he trusted

others was a gradual process. It did not come overnight. He gradually

realised that Australia was not a Detention Centre. Over time the anger

subsided - he became able to see the other side of Australia - what he

had called the ¡°mainstream¡±. There are caring

people around the place. But the only way he could do this was to make

himself available to others. For the first three months he made a decision

that he needs to concentrate on his English.

He also decided that

he must write a letter to his mother and explain his situation. The purpose

of the letter is try to give his family a better picture of what life

is like in Australia. That is, some real truths of the matter in Australia.

Below is a segment of Jamal's letter to his mother:

Mother I must reassure

you that I care for you and our family. I would and will do whatever

I can to help you and my brothers. But Australia is not like the way

we see it in the Hollywood Movies.

In order to get

a job I must learn English. I must have a proper license to do things

here. This includes driving a car, working, getting health care benefits.

I cannot just go and get a job. Life here is just not that simple. The

cost of life here is also very expensive. If I want to sponsor my fiancee

I must have a job. The only way I can provide for her in the first two

years is to have good job. But I must have good English first. Without

good English it is not possible for me to get a job. And without a job

I cannot get any money or find a place to live. Please understand and

please forgive me.

Clearly, mental health

work with asylum seekers involves some deeply personal encounters. For

stories to be told there needs to be a display of trust and acceptance

and that needs to be genuine and sustained.

Generating trust

with people involves much more than being warm and pleasant - and these

things are important. Developing trust is also about being able to deliver

trust. Before looking more closely at the benefits of this process, it

is useful for me to briefly consider some background issues I believe

to be essential for all health and human service workers to reflect upon.

At the beginning

of this paper I made the point it is quite clear that, for refugees given

the circumstances of their search for asylum, the length of their quest,

the trauma along the way, their often unhappy reception in Australia and

their detention here, it will take a while to build the kind of trust

that will allow them to share their sorrows and heartaches and indeed

their aspirations for the future.

To achieve these

aims, I call upon health and human service workers to identify their own

prejudices and biases, and what is suggested and inferred by them. To

this end I developed a series of questions to help guide this reflective

process 9. Health and human service workers should ask

themselves:

  • What are my

    own feelings towards refugees and asylum seekers? Do I indulge those

    that are distressed or non-communicative? Do I fear or dislike them?

    Do they unsettle me? And if so, why?

  • How are my

    experiences, ideas, thoughts and feelings about working with people

    who either speak little or no English or prefer to speak another language

    manifest during clinical practice?

  • To what extent

    does media and popular opinion shape my personal and professional views?

  • To what extent

    do I believe that refugees and asylum seekers are entitled to the full

    range of Health and Human Services free of charge, including ongoing

    help from mental health professionals?

Before I conclude

let me emphasise the following.

The giving and receiving

of personal information in a respectful way is not only helping us to

get to the "heart of the matter" when it comes to mental health

and well-being, it is the crucial element for the consolidation of new

lives for these newest Australians. This experience has told me of the

importance of moving on. Moving on is never easy and the timetable for

doing so can be impossible to predict. In the case of asylum seekers,

this timetable is regulated by government and takes the form of what my

colleague, Robert Barrett 10, calls "time torture".

No matter what political

persuasion, to simply keep the same attitudes will erode our freedom as

a nation and destroy our sense of community. For the children it will

erode their freedom. A freedom that is needed to trust the world around

them so that they can be confident as people in their own right.

I will now conclude

with a short letter written to our Prime Minister by a group of year 2

students attending St Aloysius College in Adelaide. The letter is an extremely

valuable document telling how the students want the Federal Government

to stop locking up children in detention centres. It so clearly conveys

how their personal interpretation of how the children should be free to

be themselves - in the least restrictive environment. I wish to thank

Carolyn Lewis (class teacher) and the entire class whose average age is

about 7 years for granting me permission to read this letter to you.

Dear Mr Howard

We believe that children

should not be kept in the Woomera Detention Centre for the following reasons:

  • It's cruel.
  • Children should

    live in a loving environment.

  • Children should

    not see bad things happening.

  • It's not fair

    to put families in jail just because they come from another country

    and don't have a visa.

  • Children can't

    eat their country's food so they might get sick.

  • Children shouldn't

    play behind barbed wire.

  • Children should

    be treated with respect just like you treat your own children.

  • The children

    have not done anything wrong.

Year 2CL 27.5.2002


1 Silove,

D.M. and Steel, Z. Letter in reply to the Psychological disturbances in

asylum seekers held in long term detention: a participant observer account,

by A. Sultan and K. O¡¯Sullivan. Medical Journal of Australia

2001; 176: 86. See also letter from Halasz, G., Block, M., Petchkovsky,

L., Cooper, H. and 20 co-signatories (all psychiatrists) in same issue.

2 This

material has been sourced from Occasional Paper No. 10 - February 2001:

Forgotten People -Asylum in Australia. Catholic Commission for Justice

Development and Peace Melbourne.

3

The Royal Australian Colelge of Physicians health ans social Policy: Asylum

Seekers. Media Release ,8 May 2002 Source, http://www.racp.edu.au/hpu/policy/asylumseekers/release_children.htm

Accessed online 18/05/02.

4. (source,

http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/TWTChronoidx_Thursday14February2002.htm

(accessed online June 1 2002).

5 Herlihy,

J., Scragg, P. and Turner, S. (2002) Discrepancies in autobiographical

memories - implications for the assessment of asylum seekers: repeated

interviews study. British Medical Journal, Vol. 324, pp. 324-7.

6 Cohen,

J (2002) Electonic letter, ¡°Much else to consider: a response

to Herlihy, J., Scragg, P. and Turner, S.¡± http://bmj.com/cgi/eletters/324/7333/324

7 Not

his real name.

8

Adapted from Procter, N.G. (forthcoming) Speaking of Sadness and the Heart

of Acceptance. A model of interactive learning between migrant communities

and mainstream mental health services. Australian Transcultural Mental

Health Network: Canberra

9 Adapted

from Procter, N. (2000) The local-global nexus and mental health of transnational

communities. Hawke Institute Working Paper Series No 8. Hawke Institute,

University of South Australia, Magill.

10 Professor

of Psychiatry, University of Adelaide.

Last

Updated 22 October 2002.