You got the hang of that quickly!
Scene of unhappy peasants.
The crown floats down to land on King John's head
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Magna Carta formally recognised rights that already existed. However in Magna Carta these rights were for free men.
In these times, most people are peasants. That meant they aren’t free, because they served landowners. So, still no rights for most of us…
Magna Carta also contained lots of different rules that had nothing to do with rights. For example, it laid out a standard measure for wine, ale, and corn.
The idea that the Monarch, or the government, cannot do whatever they want and must obey certain rules
The idea that a government can only govern so long as it has the agreement and support of the people
The idea that all people and institutions are subject to and accountable to laws
The idea that the justice system should treat everyone fairly and equally
Sir Edward Coke, an important English judge and politician, claimed King Charles was breaking the rules in Magna Carta, by imposing taxes without consent and locking people up.
The "Natural Rights" that Locke argues for are:
He also believes that the purpose of government is to create laws protecting these natural rights.
People agree to be governed as long as their rights are protected. If they are not, they can overthrow their government.
Habeas Corpus means ‘you have the body’ in Latin. But what does that mean??
Magna Carta stated that people couldn’t be put in prison by the authorities without a proper reason. Habeas Corpus meant that anyone in prison can demand to appear before a court and hear that reason, and if it isn’t lawful they must be released
This means that from now on, Parliament, not the King, is responsible for making all the laws and setting taxes.
The Act states that elections will happen regularly and often.
The English Bill of Rights also protects freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom to petition the government and the right to keep and bear arms.
Around the same time, the French revolt against their King and turn France into a republic.
Following the revolution they create the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.
This Declaration states that “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights” and includes many of the rights from Magna Carta.
The Congress is elected by the people and passes laws that protect people’s rights.
The Courts interpret the laws that the Congress writes, and also makes sure the laws don’t violate people’s rights
The President and the appointed Cabinet are in charge of running the government.
The Australian Constitution protects certain rights and freedoms.
Right to trial by jury (for a serious crime).
Freedom of religion (the Commonwealth Government cannot create laws that interfere with a person’s faith).
Right to vote (the Constitution states that the Australian Government was to be “directly chosen by the people”. However at the time this did not include women and most Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people).
In setting up their new government, the Australians take ideas from both the English and American models.
Inspired by the Americans, the states set up a national government with power divided into three branches, the elected parliament, the government and the courts.
From England, they borrow the ideas of the Westminster system, which meant that the government in power can be kept in check by the parliament.
Women have to fight for the right to vote and in 1902 they are allowed to vote in the Federal Elections.
Under the Australian Government’s White Australia Policy, it was made difficult for non-Europeans to migrate to Australia. The White Australia Policy begins to be dismantled from 1949. Later the government decides to welcome migrants and refugees from Asian countries such as Vietnam and allows them to become citizens.
For a long time, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are not recognised as Australian citizens and are not given equal rights
It takes until 1967 and a public referendum to grant the Commonwealth the power to make laws for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and recognise them as equal Australian citizens.
The carnage and devastation of the First World War made people realise the need for internationally recognised principles that respected the rights of civilians in conflict and set out rules for protecting the sick and the wounded, and prisoners of war.
Led by Adolf Hitler, the Nazis target groups of people they wish to eliminate from German society and send them to concentration camps.
They use symbols to mark these groups. For example, a red triangle was used for political prisoners, a pink triangle for gay men.
In particular, the Nazi regime targets the Jewish people, who are forced to wear a yellow Star of David. During World War II, millions of Jews are murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps.
In 1948, Australian politician Dr HV Evatt became President of the United Nation General Assembly and oversaw the adoption of the Universal Declaration in the General Assembly.
Australian Ambassador, William Hodgson was involved with the drafting and negotiation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
He was also Australia's first delegate to the United Nations General Assembly and the Australian representative on the Security Council.
No countries voted against adopting the Declaration, but 8 countries, including the Soviet Union, chose not to vote because of a conflict between their political values and some of the individual rights.
Human rights are protected in international declarations and treaties, like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Many of these treaties recognise particular groups that are in need of extra protection. For example, the Convention on the Rights of the Child set out special rights that belong to all children.
Our rights and freedoms are also protected in Australia, by the federal and state governments, our legal system and organisations like the Australian Human Rights Commission.
Businesses, schools and other groups can all play a part in protecting rights and freedoms by making sure that everyone in the community is treated equally and fairly.
As individuals we have the power to stand up and demand rights for ourselves and others.